Exploring the Hyper-V 2012 R2 and Copy-VMFile Powershell cmdlet

August 7th, 2013 2 comments

Today I have been exploring a bit in the Windows 2012 R2 Preview and when looking in the technet article “What´s new in Hyper-V 2012 R2” I found the interesting part with the new Integration Service “Guest Services” that allows moving files from the host to the virtual machine without any network connectivity.

This requires two things, first that the “Guest Services” integration component is activated in the VM settings and also that the virtual machine has the latest integrational components installed and the “Hyper-V Guest Interface” service running.


When creating a new virtual machine this is not enabled but I have noticed that when you install Windows 2012 R2 inside the Virtual Machine it gets enabled somehow during the installation, both good and bad… Maybe you want to have some control on what VM´s get this enabled, this can however be a Preview “bug” and will change when the R2 is RTM.

Inside the VM the following Service is running and makes it possible to move files to the VM from the Host. Note that even that you can run the powershell cmdlet from a remote server that have the Hyper-V RSAT tools installed you will have to put the file/files you want to transfer to the VM on the host!


And with this command I move a file into the VM, the parameter -FileSource that only accepts Host today implies that it might be possible to also move files from the VM to the host in a later version. (this can be done with the mounting of the parent disk of a vhd/vhdx after a snapshot that I have done a blog post about before)

Screen Shot 2013-08-07 at 13.43.44

Move-Item c:\temp\vNiklasMove.txt -Destination \\hvr2\c$\temp\vNiklasMove.txt
Copy-VMFile -VMName Yellow -ComputerName hvr2 -SourcePath C:\temp\vNiklasMove.txt -DestinationPath c:\temp\vNiklasMove.txt -FileSource Host -CreateFullPath

With the parameter -CreateFullPath the folders will be created that I have in the -DestinationPath inside the VM.

If you want to check what VM´s have this Integration guest service enabled you can check it with PowerShell and also disable it and only enable on a per VM basis when transferring files.

Get-VM -ComputerName hvr2 | Get-VMIntegrationService -Name "Guest Service Interface" | where Enabled -eq $true | Disable-VMIntegrationService -Passthru

And on the following screendump you can see that after disabling this I cannot transfer files to the VM.

Screen Shot 2013-08-07 at 14.04.43


Categories: Hyper-V, Powershell, Virtualization, Win2012 Tags:

New post on PowerShell Taskforce blog by me

August 5th, 2013 No comments


Today I have started to contribute to a community blog called PowerShell Taskforce and there are several bright PS-Gurus co-writing there.

My first blog post is about how to change vlan value with powershell allthough the gui will not allow it in System Center Virtual Machine Manager

here you can find the link -> http://powershelltaskforce.com/


Categories: Powershell Tags:

Importance to set Dynamic Memory Maximum in Hyper-V 2012

July 25th, 2013 No comments

In my little lab it was quite the time to do an rearm of the servers licenses as I had installed them with the evaluation version. This can be done with the slmgr.vbs /rearm command and a reboot.

Screen Shot 2013-07-23 at 11.08.23

And when I came to the second server where the domain controller resides I noticed that it consumed a lot of memory for just having the DC role.

Screen Shot 2013-07-23 at 11.14.26

When looking a bit closer I noticed sessions where me and a colleague that have been logged in but in disconnected mode and consumed both CPU and memory. In almost every server this is not optimal where Admins can stay logged in forever and this can be handled with a GPO setting to restrict the time for a disconnected session on servers residing in a specific OU.

 Screen Shot 2013-07-23 at 11.18.52

 Another problem was that when I created the DC VM I just activated the Dynamic memory without setting any limits and this could cause a host with no physical memory left and VM´s going crazy with allocated memory. Setting the Startup memory is important but also setting the Maximum RAM, I have as a best practice to set the startup and Maximum to the same values.

Screen Shot 2013-07-23 at 11.21.41

With PowerShell I easily could change the settings of the VM to have a more reasonable maximum value than 1TB. And as you can see with the -PassThrough parameter I can do it in one line.

Screen Shot 2013-07-25 at 11.18.34

PS C:\> get-vm dc01 | Stop-VM -Passthru | Set-VM -MemoryMaximumBytes 2GB -Passthru | Start-VM

And after the DC restarted you can see that it only consumes 624 MB RAM.

Screen Shot 2013-07-23 at 11.34.37

Download all System Center R2 eval VHD with PowerShell

July 10th, 2013 No comments

I have already blogged about how to use PowerShell to download all of the System Center 2012 SP1 VHD evaluation files with PowerShell and BITS.

As Microsoft has released an updated version with Windows 2012 R2 and System Center 2012 R2 Preview I wanted to give you the script with updated url´s so you can easily download and try out the different roles! Note though that the Configuration Manager evaluation VHD has not yet been released, I still have the link in the script so when it will be available you can download it! They have also changed the packages to .bin instead of .rar.

Make sure that you have enough space on your volume and then run the following script and you will within a time that of course depends on your internet connection have all files necessary to start evaluate. I will update the script with the right size of R2 once I have downloaded all but think that 70 GB will be enough at lest now when SCCM is not available :-)

# Download all SC 2012 R2 Preview VHD Eval
# Niklas Akerlund / Lumagate 2013-07-10

# Downloadfolder
$Dest = "D:\VHDEVALR2"
$SizeOfSCR2 = 70GB

# Get Space on volume
$SpaceRemaining = (Get-Volume $Dest.Split(":")[0]).SizeRemaining

if($SpaceRemaining -gt $SizeOfSCR2){
((Invoke-WebRequest -Uri "http://www.microsoft.com/en-us/download/confirmation.aspx?id=34803").links | ? href -match "rar$|exe$|docx$|bin$").href | %{Start-BitsTransfer -Source $_ -Destination $Dest}
((Invoke-WebRequest -Uri "http://www.microsoft.com/en-us/download/confirmation.aspx?id=34780").links | ? href -match "rar$|exe$|docx$|bin$").href | %{Start-BitsTransfer -Source $_ -Destination $Dest}
((Invoke-WebRequest -Uri "http://www.microsoft.com/en-us/download/confirmation.aspx?id=34778").links | ? href -match "rar$|exe$|docx$|bin$").href | %{Start-BitsTransfer -Source $_ -Destination $Dest}
((Invoke-WebRequest -Uri "http://www.microsoft.com/en-us/download/confirmation.aspx?id=39369").links | ? href -match "rar$|exe$|docx$|bin$").href | %{Start-BitsTransfer -Source $_ -Destination $Dest}
((Invoke-WebRequest -Uri "http://www.microsoft.com/en-us/download/confirmation.aspx?id=34779").links | ? href -match "rar$|exe$|docx$|bin$").href | %{Start-BitsTransfer -Source $_ -Destination $Dest}
((Invoke-WebRequest -Uri "http://www.microsoft.com/en-us/download/confirmation.aspx?id=39368").links | ? href -match "rar$|exe$|docx$|bin$").href | %{Start-BitsTransfer -Source $_ -Destination $Dest}
((Invoke-WebRequest -Uri "http://www.microsoft.com/en-us/download/confirmation.aspx?id=34777").links | ? href -match "rar$|exe$|docx$|bin$").href | %{Start-BitsTransfer -Source $_ -Destination $Dest}
((Invoke-WebRequest -Uri "http://www.microsoft.com/en-us/download/confirmation.aspx?id=39367").links | ? href -match "rar$|exe$|docx$|bin$").href | %{Start-BitsTransfer -Source $_ -Destination $Dest}
[int]$Sum = ($SizeOfSCR2 - $SpaceRemaining)/1GB
Write-Host "Free up at least $Sum GB and try again!"

Start downloading and explore while your vacation rains away (actually the first day it rains here for some weeks)!

Categories: Powershell, SCVMM, Virtualization, Win2012 Tags:

Resizing VHDX´s on running VM´s in Windows 2012 R2 Hyper-V

June 30th, 2013 1 comment

As I described in an earlier post about why you should think about creating VM´s with Windows 2012 now when the Windows 2012 R2 have arrived I have now tested the online VHDX resize function.

And as I already have emphasized is that you can only online resize VHDX´s that are connected to a SCSI controller, and it is only on Generation 2 VM that your Hyper-V VM´s can have the boot disk connected to the SCSI and also that limits the number of OS´s (Windows 2012/2012R2 and Win 8/8.1)

I have not yet successfully migrated a Gen 1 VM´s system disk to a Gen 2 but I am working on it :-P (the Gen 2 uses UEFTI and GPT) and some kind of backup/restore will probably be required..  I will post updates in my pursue of this task.

Screen Shot 2013-06-28 at 22.56.20

In the following part of this post I want to show you how I resize both a VHDX with the system and boot partition on it and an additional VHDX with data on the VM running on the Generation 2.

As you can see with this PowerShell I can easily extend the VHDX and also with the following command I can get the minimum size that I can shrink it to, this depends on the volume inside and that can also be shrunk online of course, that has been possible since Windows 2008. I have also gone through this case in an earlier post, the main difference here with R2 is that it can be done online.

When checking the help for the Hyper-V PowerShell module in R2 it can be noted that the help information has not been updated as it says still that it is an offline operation :-P

Screen Shot 2013-06-30 at 16.55.16

So to resize during the VM is running is shown here in the following screendump, and as you can see, both the system drive and the L-drive are extended.

Screen Shot 2013-06-30 at 19.58.34

And here you can see how we can shrink the VHDX also, note that I have extended the system volume with 3 GB inside the VM also so the minimum have gone up all this when the VM was running!

Screen Shot 2013-06-30 at 19.59.50

Here is the Powershell

Get-VHD (Get-VM winshrink | Get-VMHardDiskDrive).path | Select @{Label="SizeGB";Expression={"{0:N0}" -f ($_.Size/1GB)}},@{Label="MinSizeGB";Expression={"{0:N0}" -f ($_.MinimumSize/1GB)}}

Get-VHD (Get-VM winshrink | Get-VMHardDiskDrive).path | where Path -match winshrink.vhdx | Resize-VHD -SizeBytes 30GB

Get-VHD (Get-VM winshrink | Get-VMHardDiskDrive).path | where Path -match L.vhdx | Resize-VHD -SizeBytes 60GB

Get-VHD (Get-VM winshrink | Get-VMHardDiskDrive).path | where Path -match winshrink.vhdx | Resize-VHD -ToMinimumSize

Get-VHD (Get-VM winshrink | Get-VMHardDiskDrive).path | where Path -match L.vhdx | Resize-VHD -ToMinimumSize

Happy extending and shrinking your SCSI attached VHDX hdd

Hotfix and updates check of Hyper-V and Cluster with Powershell

June 28th, 2013 12 comments

I read Hyper-V.nu great blog article about Christian Edwards script that checks both hosts and clusters for hotfixes and updates and found some things I wanted to improve in the script, first of all I wanted an object list instead of just some Write-Host with cool colors.. Then I can use the fabulous techniques of PowerShell to just show the once that I do not have installed or make a decent report for my cluster or just standalone hosts.

The next improvement I thought of was the automatic download of all hotfixes.. Well registering at the web page and downloading each hotfix can work for some but not many, so I extended the XML files with the DownloadURL and also changed the script to support either a host or a cluster object. The download parameter will not check what´s installed or not, it will just download all hotfixes that I found URL´s for so bare with me if it is not complete and make a comment or send me a tweet and I will try to update the xml file

Here you can see how I can run it and also as I have the result as objects filter on installed or not

Screen Shot 2013-06-28 at 01.36.51

And here you can see when I check a cluster and also add the parameters for downloading and the path to where the downloaded files shall reside

Screen Shot 2013-06-28 at 01.40.18

And here is a screendump of some of the hotfix files that are downloaded, as you can see in the script I utilize the BITS engine to download the files :-)

Screen Shot 2013-06-28 at 01.32.35

Updated with hotfixes to 2013-07-15! Here is the script and the xml files with the extended DownloadURL are in this download zip file-> hyperv12updatescheck.

# Remake of Christian Edwards script to make it more flexible
# http://blogs.technet.com/b/cedward/archive/2013/05/31/validating-hyper-v-2012-and-failover-clustering-hotfixes-with-powershell-part-2.aspx
# Niklas Akerlund 2013-06-28


#Getting current execution path
$scriptpath = $MyInvocation.MyCommand.Path
$dir = Split-Path $scriptpath
$listofHotfixes = @()

#Loading list of updates from XML files

[xml]$SourceFileHyperV = Get-Content $dir\UpdatesListHyperV.xml
[xml]$SourceFileCluster = Get-Content $dir\UpdatesListCluster.xml

$HyperVHotfixes = $SourceFileHyperV.Updates.Update
$ClusterHotfixes = $SourceFileCluster.Updates.update

#Getting installed Hotfixes from all nodes of the Cluster/hosts
if ($ClusterName){
    $Nodes = Get-Cluster $ClusterName | Get-ClusterNode | Select -ExpandProperty Name
    $Nodes = $Hostname
foreach($Node in $Nodes)
$Hotfixes = Get-HotFix -ComputerName $Node |select HotfixID,description

foreach($RecomendedHotfix in $HyperVHotfixes)
        $witness = 0
        foreach($hotfix in $Hotfixes)
                If($RecomendedHotfix.id -eq $hotfix.HotfixID)
                    $obj = [PSCustomObject]@{
                        HyperVNode = $Node
                        HotfixType = "Hyper-V"
                        RecomendedHotfix = $RecomendedHotfix.Id
                        Status = "Installed"
                        Description = $RecomendedHotfix.Description
                        DownloadURL =  $RecomendedHotfix.DownloadURL
                   $listOfHotfixes += $obj
                    $witness = 1
        if($witness -eq 0)
            $obj = [PSCustomObject]@{
                    HyperVNode = $Node
                    HotfixType = "Hyper-V"
                    RecomendedHotfix = $RecomendedHotfix.Id
                    Status = "Not Installed"
                    Description = $RecomendedHotfix.Description
                    DownloadURL =  $RecomendedHotfix.DownloadURL
            $listofHotfixes += $obj

foreach($RecomendedClusterHotfix in $ClusterHotfixes)
        $witness = 0
        foreach($hotfix in $Hotfixes)
                If($RecomendedClusterHotfix.id -eq $hotfix.HotfixID)
                    $obj = [PSCustomObject]@{
                        HyperVNode = $Node
                        HotfixType = "Cluster"
                        RecomendedHotfix = $RecomendedClusterHotfix.Id
                        Status = "Installed"
                        Description = $RecomendedClusterHotfix.Description
                        DownloadURL =  $RecomendedClusterHotfix.DownloadURL
                   $listOfHotfixes += $obj
                   $witness = 1
        if($witness -eq 0)
            $obj = [PSCustomObject]@{
                HyperVNode = $Node
                HotfixType = "Cluster"
                RecomendedHotfix = $RecomendedClusterHotfix.Id
                Status = "Not Installed"
                Description = $RecomendedClusterHotfix.Description
                DownloadURL =  $RecomendedClusterHotfix.DownloadURL
            $listOfHotfixes += $obj          
if ($Download){
    foreach($RecomendedHotfix in $HyperVHotfixes){
        if ($RecomendedHotfix.DownloadURL -ne ""){
            Start-BitsTransfer -Source $RecomendedHotfix.DownloadURL -Destination $DownloadPath 
    foreach($RecomendedClusterHotfix in $ClusterHotfixes){
        if ($RecomendedClusterHotfix.DownloadURL -ne ""){
            Start-BitsTransfer -Source $RecomendedClusterHotfix.DownloadURL -Destination $DownloadPath 



Live Migrating a VM from Hyper-V 2012 to R2 with PowerShell

June 26th, 2013 No comments

After reading about the possibility to Live Migrate between versions and now getting the R2 bits I had to test the migration of a VM from a Hyper-V 2012 enabled host to a newly installed Hyper-V 2012 R2. I have on both the hosts enabled the migration on the hosts with kerberos authentication and also set up delegation.

When starting a migration I got the following error, and it did not tell me what was actually wrong, but after I disconnected the ISO that was connected the migration succeeded nicely!


So here is a perfect place for you to check your VM´s for connected ISO´s and disconnect them before migrating and that can easily be done with PowerShell,

Get-VM -ComputerName HV01 | Get-VMDvdDrive | where DVDMediaType -ne None | Set-VMDvdDrive -Path $null

Screen Shot 2013-06-26 at 14.41.57

After this has been done I can continue to migrate the server and that can also be done with PowerShell,

Move-VM -ComputerName hv01 -Name win2k3-01 -DestinationHost hvr2 -IncludeStorage -DestinationStoragePath c:\vms\win2k3-01

Screen Shot 2013-06-26 at 14.44.13

As you can see it now resides on the 2012 R2 server and is still running :-).

When trying to migrate the VM back to the 2012 Hyper-V I get an strange error (yes I know, it is not supported but I had to try!), the error message could have been a bit more informative, and I have tested to set the migration option to just TCP/IP instead of compression but still get the same error message!


And with powershell I get a bit clearer view of the error message,

Screen Shot 2013-06-26 at 15.44.23

Categories: Hyper-V, Powershell, Virtualization, Win2012 Tags:

Still some traces of snapshot name in 2012 R2 Hyper-V PowerShell

June 26th, 2013 No comments

To align the Hyper-V with System Center VMM Microsoft has changed the Hyper-V manager regarding the snapshots to Checkpoints. I personally had preferred that they changed the naming in VMM to snapshots instead, but that is my opinion and maybe that is because of my background in VMware environments :-P


Although the change has been implemented in the GUI, the PowerShell module has not been updated to reflect this as you can see in my next screendump:

Screen Shot 2013-06-26 at 12.52.22

The cmdlet to take a checkpoint is as it has been in the Hyper-V Powershell module in 2012, Checkpoint-VM.

Categories: Hyper-V, Powershell, Virtualization, Win2012 Tags:

Upgrading Windows Core Hyper-V from 2012 to 2012 R2

June 25th, 2013 No comments

This morning I could read that the R2 preview bits was available to download and of course I had to download and install.

I have installed one Win 2012 R2 with GUI and also I have now tried to upgrade my Windows 2012 Hyper-V core server to R2, as you can see on the screendump below, I had some issues to take care of.

Screen Shot 2013-06-25 at 10.17.31

After evicting it from the cluster and also stopping all VM´s I could continue to upgrade the server, it was really fast (now I have SSD and that does make a difference :-P ) but still, the feeling is that Microsoft have done some work on making the R2 more rapid, the Powershell console is also more alert and responsive when starting it.

Screen Shot 2013-06-25 at 10.29.13

I will continue to evaluate the Preview and there will probably be some more posts about my findings in the R2 release :-)

Categories: Hyper-V, Virtualization, Win2012 Tags:

Why create all your virtual machines with Windows 2012/ Windows 8?

June 14th, 2013 No comments


As the announcement on Teched there has been several improvements on Hyper-V 2012 R2.

With the Windows Hyper-V Server R2  you can create generation 2 virtual machines but these can only be Windows 2012/ Windows 8 or later. And in this post I will try to give you the insight in why it is important that you set up all your virtual machines from now with 2012 and later.

As several blogs have already created lists of the features in R2 I will just refer to them, Thomas Maurer has a great article and also Aidan Finn (The Irish human Hyper-v blogrobot ;-) )

Here are the information about the two features that I want to focus on in this post:

  • Online resizing of VHDX – You can expand and shrink VHDX files during the virtual machine is running.
  • Generation 2 virtual machines – Gen2 VMs are legacy free and based on UEFI. So this means no more emulated devices, boot from virtual SCSI controllers or synthetic network adapters (PXE boot >100MBit) and enables UEFI secure boot as a standard. Supported guest operating systems: 64-bit versions of Windows 8, Windows Server 2012, Windows 8.1 and Windows Server 2012 R2.

So, WoW we can now while the virtual machine runs resize the VHDX, not just extend but also shrink! But there is a limitation!! The vhdx must be connected to a SCSI controller in the virtual machine to be able to utilize this feature! And as you know the system drive (often C:\) in Hyper-V Gen 1 VM´s has to be connected to IDE controller. And yes it is best practice to install the applications and databases and stuff on a separate virtual hard drive that you connect to a SCSI controller but quite often the system drive get´s full with windows patches, logs  and also some applications, etc  and then you want to be able to extend it and being able to do that online is quite sweet!

I have seen several posts that omit this information and it is quite important to be aware of this and that is why I state above that already now before R2, start creating your virtual machines with Win 2012 so that you when R2 is released and you have it in production can migrate your virtual machines to the Generation 2 VM. Yes I know there are several third party software companies that not have support on 2012 yet with their products. But if they do, then there is no reason to install that on a Windows 2008 R2!

When I get my hands on the R2 bits I will test and see how it works to migrate and will do an post about that so check back :-)

Categories: Hyper-V, Virtualization, Win2012 Tags: