Mass-VDI reconfiguration on vSphere with PowerCLI

A colleague asked me if there was an easy way to reconfigure VM´s that was on different hosts with PowerCLI, for some reason the VM´s had been configured with too many vCPU´s and the customer wanted a way to reconfigure the running VM´s.

I made a very easy PowerCLI script to solve this, maybe there is other solutions that might be better/more beautiful but this one solved the issue :-)

You save this as a script and then run it with the starting name of the VM´s you want to configure, and as you can see you have to already have connected to the vcenter with Connect-VIServer before running it:

Screen Shot 2015-02-16 at 10.25.27

happy automating :-)

New book about PowerCLI have been released!

I have had the pleasure to find a new book about PowerCLI that have been released.

Learning PowerCLI by Robert van den Nieuwendijk

Screen Shot 2014-03-05 at 21.20.24

 

The book has 10 chapters and is truly a bible for a VMware Admin that wants to learn how to utilize PowerCLI in their environment. The book covers the latest version of PowerCLI and PowerShell v3.

If you are new to PowerShell and PowerCLI the first chapters gives you great guidance in how to do basic things and once you feel comfortable you can continue with the other chapters and start automating your daunting tasks as a VI Admin!

I have done some magic with PowerCLI and I can recommend you to add it to your shelf to be comfortable in your career :-)

If you are interested in getting more info on the book please follow this link  http://www.packtpub.com/learning-powercli/book

 

Using PowerCLI to set CPU/Memory reservation on VM´s in vSphere

I have made a function to set reservations on VM´s in PowerCLI. The function takes a VM as parameter and also percentage of CPU and Memory you want to reserve.

The function checks the Mhz of the physical CPU from the Host the VM is running on and makes the reservation from this.

In the function I can set both memory and cpu reservation or just one of them

here is a screendump of the function being used

and here is the PowerCLI

function Set-VMReservation{
<#
.SYNOPSIS
Set VM Reservation on Memory and/or CPU

.DESCRIPTION
Use this function set VM reservations 

.PARAMETER MemoryMB
Use this parameter to set the percent of memory reserved for the VM

.PARAMETER CpuMhz
Use this parameter to set the percent of CPU Mhz from the host CPU to be reserved

.NOTES
Author: Niklas Akerlund
Date: 2012-07-19
#>
    param (
   [Parameter(Position=0,Mandatory=$true,HelpMessage="A VM",
    ValueFromPipeline=$True)]
    $VM,
	$MemoryMB = 0,
	$CpuMhz = 0
    )
	$VM = Get-VM $VM
	if ($MemoryMB -ne 0 -and $CpuMhz -ne 0){
		$MemoryMB = $MemoryMB/100
		[int]$MemoryMB = $VM.MemoryMB*$MemoryMB
		$CpuMhz = $CpuMhz/100
		[int]$CpuMhz = ([math]::truncate(((Get-VMHost -id $VM.extensiondata.summary.runtime.host).ExtensionData.Hardware.CpuInfo.hz)/1000000))*$VM.NumCpu*$CpuMhz
		$VM | Get-VMResourceConfiguration |Set-VMResourceConfiguration -CpuReservationMhz $CpuMhz -MemReservationMB $MemoryMB
	}elseif ($MemoryMB -ne 0 -and $CpuMhz -eq 0){
		$MemoryMB = $MemoryMB/100
		[int]$MemoryMB = $VM.MemoryMB*$MemoryMB
		$VM | Get-VMResourceConfiguration |Set-VMResourceConfiguration -MemReservationMB $MemoryMB
	}elseif ($MemoryMB -eq 0 -and $CpuMhz -ne 0){
		$CpuMhz = $CpuMhz/100
		[int]$CpuMhz = ([math]::truncate(((Get-VMHost -id $VM.extensiondata.summary.runtime.host).ExtensionData.Hardware.CpuInfo.hz)/1000000))*$VM.NumCpu*$CpuMhz
		$VM | Get-VMResourceConfiguration |Set-VMResourceConfiguration -CpuReservationMhz $CpuMhz
	}elseif ($MemoryMB -eq 0 -and $CpuMhz -eq 0){
		$VM | Get-VMResourceConfiguration |Set-VMResourceConfiguration -CpuReservationMhz 0 -MemReservationMB 0
	}
}

In this example I have set the CPU reservation to 60 % and Memory to 40 %

vSphere Cluster Host-VM rule affinity with PowerCLI

A colleague wanted a script that could make a Host-VM affinity rule so that certain VM´s that resided on one storage at one site would run on the hosts on that site, the cluster spanns over two sites so the VM´s can run at both sites but one datastore is primary at the first site and the other at the second site.  So He wanted to get the VM´s that have their storage on datastoreLocation1 to be in an host-vm affinity rule “Should Run” on the hosts that is in that site. In this community post I found most of the code, I made som adjustments but mostly the cred goes to @lucd22 and GotMoo.

Here you can see the screendump from the cluster settings

Here is the powerCLI that has been run

One thing here was also that this VMgroup should be updated once a day if there was new VM´s that needed to be included. So this lines should be run in a scheduled task, this will make the DRSVMGroup VMLocationDC1 to be updated with the VM´s currently located at that datastore:

$VM = get-datastore delad02 | get-vm
Update-DrsVMGroup -cluster vmw* -VMs $VM -groupVMName VMLocationDC1

Here are the PowerCLI functions for doing this. As you can see I have an switch parameter for -MustRun, that will create the rule as a Must Run on these hosts.

function New-DRSGroupRule{
<#
.SYNOPSIS
Create a new DRSGroupRule for VMs to reside on some hosts in a cluster

.DESCRIPTION
Use this function to create vms in a group and hosts in a group and a host-vm affinity

.PARAMETER  MustRun
A switch that will create the rule with Must Run on these host, if not set it will create the rule with should run.

.NOTES
Author: Niklas Akerlund / RTS (most of the code came from http://communities.vmware.com/message/1667279 @LucD22 and GotMoo)
Date: 2012-06-28
#>
	param (
	[Parameter(Position=0,Mandatory=$true,HelpMessage="A Cluster",
	ValueFromPipeline=$True)]
	$cluster,
	$VMHosts,
	$VMs,
	[string]$Name,
	[switch]$MustRun
	)
	
	$cluster = Get-Cluster $cluster

	$spec = New-Object VMware.Vim.ClusterConfigSpecEx
	$groupVM = New-Object VMware.Vim.ClusterGroupSpec 
	$groupVM.operation = "add" 
	$groupVM.Info = New-Object VMware.Vim.ClusterVmGroup
	$groupVM.Info.Name = "VM$Name"

	Get-VM $VMs | %{
	$groupVM.Info.VM += $_.Extensiondata.MoRef
	}
	$spec.GroupSpec += $groupVM

	$groupESX = New-Object VMware.Vim.ClusterGroupSpec 
	$groupESX.operation = "add"
	$groupESX.Info = New-Object VMware.Vim.ClusterHostGroup
	$groupESX.Info.Name = "Host$Name"

	Get-VMHost $VMHosts | %{
	$groupESX.Info.Host += $_.Extensiondata.MoRef
	}
	$spec.GroupSpec += $groupESX

	$rule = New-Object VMware.Vim.ClusterRuleSpec
	$rule.operation = "add"
	$rule.info = New-Object VMware.Vim.ClusterVmHostRuleInfo
	$rule.info.enabled = $true
	$rule.info.name = $Name
	if($MustRun){
		$rule.info.mandatory = $true
	}else{
		$rule.info.mandatory = $false
	}
	$rule.info.vmGroupName = "VM$Name"
	$rule.info.affineHostGroupName = "Host$Name"
	$spec.RulesSpec += $rule

	$cluster.ExtensionData.ReconfigureComputeResource($spec,$true)
}

function Update-DrsVMGroup {
<#
.SYNOPSIS
Update DRS VM group with a new collection of VM´s

.DESCRIPTION
Use this function to update the ClusterVMgroup with VMs that are sent in by parameters

.PARAMETER  xyz 

.NOTES
Author: Niklas Akerlund / RTS (most of the code came from http://communities.vmware.com/message/1667279 @LucD22 and GotMoo)
Date: 2012-06-28
#>
	param (
	$cluster,
	$VMs,
	$groupVMName)
	
    $cluster = Get-Cluster $cluster
    $spec = New-Object VMware.Vim.ClusterConfigSpecEx
    $groupVM = New-Object VMware.Vim.ClusterGroupSpec 
    #Operation edit will replace the contents of the GroupVMName with the new contents seleced below.
    $groupVM.operation = "edit" 

    $groupVM.Info = New-Object VMware.Vim.ClusterVmGroup
    $groupVM.Info.Name = $groupVMName 

    Get-VM $VMs | %{
        $groupVM.Info.VM += $_.Extensiondata.MoRef
    }
    $spec.GroupSpec += $groupVM

    #Apply the settings to the cluster
    $cluster.ExtensionData.ReconfigureComputeResource($spec,$true)
}

When I get the time I might add some more functionality to also remove rules and groups.

VM affinity when using vCloud Director and vApps

I made a blog post some time ago, where i created a powerCLI function for creating a VM affinity rule that would keep my VM´s in a vApp together in the cluster for better VM-VM performance. I then checked for MoRef to get the VM correlated between vCloud Director and vCenter.

The answer to my problem was much closer than I thought, the vCloud director creates a folder in the “VM´s and Template view” for each vApp and guess what, all VM´s are in there.. so I do not need to ask the vCloud Director anymore (well if I want the Cloud vApp name I do need to ask it..) but ironically I had not looked there and found out that the folders actually where created for each deployed vCloud vApp :-/

So the code is a bit simpler and to get all VM´s from a folder I just type this, the asterisk is because the folder also gets a unique id

Get-Folder | where {$_.Name -like "ProdvCPod*"} | Get-VM

And then I just need to put those VM´s into an array and create a DRS rule, and here is the function that does this

<#
.Synopsis
   Add an affinity rule for a vCloud Director vAPP
.DESCRIPTION
   This function takes a vApp name (string) as parameter and creates an affinity rule for them to keep them together
.EXAMPLE
   Add-vAppAffinity -CIVApp ProdCust01
.NOTES
Author: Niklas Akerlund
Date: 2012-06-21
#>
function Add-vAppAffinity
{
    Param
    (
        # Parameter for the vAPP
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,
                   ValueFromPipelineByPropertyName=$true,
                   Position=0)]
        $CIVApp,

        # If the rule should apply on a different cluster
        $Cluster = "Cluster01"
    	)

	if ($CIVApp -ne " " -or $CIVApp -ne $null -or $CIVApp.length -ne 0 ){
		$Cluster = Get-Cluster $Cluster
		$VAppname = $CIVApp + "*"
		$VMs =  Get-Folder | where {$_.Name -like $VAppname} | Get-VM	
		
		if (!(Get-DrsRule -Cluster $Cluster -Name $CIVApp -ErrorAction SilentlyContinue)){ 
			New-DrsRule -Name $CIVApp -Cluster $Cluster -KeepTogether $true -VM $VMs
		}else{
			Remove-DrsRule -Rule (Get-DrsRule -Cluster $Cluster -Name $CIVApp) -Confirm:$false
			New-DrsRule -Name $CIVApp -Cluster $Cluster -KeepTogether $true -VM $VMs
		}
	}
}

To run it:

and it looks something like this if I check the cluster settings

preferably you have set your DRS cluster to fully automated or not so much will happen :-)

PowerCLI installed on Windows2012 and working in PS Webaccess

Today my adventures continues, I had to test and install the PowerCLI on a Windows 2012 RC to see if it works and also if it could be used in the new Windows 2012 feature PowerShell Webaccess.

In an earlier post I showed how to configure the PowerShell Webaccess, then I was not successful to run the PowerCLI, the difference here is that I now installed the PowerCLI on the Win 2012 server.

To be able to install i had to enable the .net 2.0 (why the PowerCLI is built on that version is another discussion we will not go into here), as you can see on the dialog I had to enable that

Ok, and that should be done with PowerShell or? My server did not have an active Internet connection so I got a failure when trying to enable the .Net Framework, I had to use the Dism tool with the install media to get the .Net installed as it otherwise downloads the files necessary from MS.

dism /online /enable-feature /featurename:NetFx3 /all /source:D:\sources\sxs

When this is enabled then there was no problem installing the PowerCLI and when installed I can use for example the V3 functions Get-VM | where powerstate -eq “PoweredOn” <- notice I am not using any curly brackets and $_

Now to the Webaccess, I connect to the site https://pstest.vniklas.com/pswa and log on with an authorized account. After that I run Add-PSSnapin VMware.VimAutomation.Core to enable the PowerCLI functionality . Then i need to get the credential before connecting to the vCenter because the pswa could not show the promt for credential.

But that is easily fixed by using $cred = Get-Credential and then Connect-VIServer vc.vniklas.com -Credential $cred :-) and as you can see I can now connect and use the PowerCLI in a web browser.

May the PowerCLI be with you!

VMware vSwitch ports massage with PowerCLI

This week I have been teaching my first vSphere 5 ICM, I have been trying to show the students the wonderful world of PowerCLI and all good you can do with it.

When we got to the virtual networking I tested if I could add a switch with any number of ports

get-vmhost esxi01* | New-VirtualSwitch -Name TestNumPorts -NumPorts 12 -Nic vmnic0

When I try to add 12 ports with the -NumPorts parameter, powerCLI tells me that my switch has been created with 16 ports, but look here in my vSphere Client screen dump

hmm smells like a bug? or ?

Well now I wanted to test if I could add more than 4 VM´s and connect them and then start them, first I have to create a Portgroup that i can connect and then a nice for loop to create 10 VM´s

get-vmhost esxi01* | Get-VirtualSwitch -Name TestNumPorts | New-VirtualPortGroup -Name Test

for ($i=1;$i -le 10;$i++){New-VM -VMHost (Get-VMHost esxi01*) -Name ("VM01" + $i) -Datastore (Get-Datastore delad02) -NetworkName Test}

The last  oneliner creates a standard VM with 256 MB ram and a 4 GB vmdk disk, and then I want to start them to actually connect them to the network I created to see if anyone of them does not get connected.

So to get them connected I start them

And check the last command where we can see that my number of available ports has not decremented?

Here you can see in the vSphere client that all my new VM´s are connected to the Test portgroup

In this screenshot you can see why my vSwitch got 16 ports (as 8 are allocated by the vmkernel) and the options are 8/24/56/120/248/504/1016 and so on, but still it does not explan why the powercli does not show that i have used 10 of the ports, or?

To see maybe what causing this I changed the number of ports to one of the “allowed” and when I changed the number to 16 ports, directly my free ports changed to 4, but I have 10 machines + 8 reserved?

The following powerCLI command shows the VM´s and if they are connected if you do not believe the gui 😉

Get-VM VM01* | Get-NetworkAdapter | select parent, connectionstate

 

The conclusion is that I have no answer if this is as it should be or if it is a bug, maybe someone out there could clarify :-)

Now time to prepare for tomorrow and the modules in the course :-)

PowerCLI report on datastores, overprovision and number of powered on VM´s

Today I had an reason for running PowerCLI again, the case was to get an quick report on the datastores at a customer, I have made a post about the one-liner that get the number of running VM´s on a datastore. As i described in that post, if your SAN does not support VAAI then you do not want to many VM´s on each datastore because of the SCSI-locking that can occur. This is just an extension of that because we also wanted to check how overprovisioned the datastores was (when using thin provisioning there is a risk that you will fill your datastores as the VM´s fill their vmdk disk´s)

The PowerCLI code looks like this

Get-Datastore | Select Name,@{N="TotalSpaceGB";E={[Math]::Round(($_.ExtensionData.Summary.Capacity)/1GB,0)}},@{N="UsedSpaceGB";E={[Math]::Round(($_.ExtensionData.Summary.Capacity - $_.ExtensionData.Summary.FreeSpace)/1GB,0)}}, @{N="ProvisionedSpaceGB";E={[Math]::Round(($_.ExtensionData.Summary.Capacity - $_.ExtensionData.Summary.FreeSpace + $_.ExtensionData.Summary.Uncommitted)/1GB,0)}},@{N="NumVM";E={@($_ | Get-VM | where {$_.PowerState -eq "PoweredOn"}).Count}} | Sort Name | Export-Csv -Path C:\temp\vmds-datastore.csv -NoTypeInformation -UseCulture

And this is when i have run it on my test system, the difference here is that i removed the Export-CSV to get the output in the console

And here is a simple excel report

 

VMware vCloud Director vApp and DRS cluster affinity with PowerCLI

To fully utilize the performance in a vApp in vCloud Director I got the task to create an affinity rule based on the VMs in the vApp. This can be the case for example when you have VMs in an vApp that exchange high loads of data. In our case we have virtual ESXi Servers that have a vsa for shared storage and need good performance when deploying VM´s and storage vMotion etc.

When deploying several vApps from the same template it is not just to run Get-CIVM and then use the VM name returned to run Get-VM for the correlation between the VM in VCD and in vCenter, as you can see in the screendumps these two have the same name but followed with an identifier from vCD in the vSphere Client. This is also described in the vSphere blog.

The fine part is that the MoRef is unique (in the relation one vcd <-> one vcenter) so I can check on that which VMs in the vCenter belongs to the same vCloud Director vApp.

I got the code for the MoRef in this community post.

And here is my script

<#
.Synopsis
   Add an affinity rule for a vCloud Director vAPP
.DESCRIPTION
   This function takes a vApp as parameter and creates an affinity rule for them to keep them together
.EXAMPLE
   Add-CIVAppAffinity -CIVApp Green01
.NOTES
Author: Niklas Akerlund / RTS
Date: 2012-05-03
#>
function Add-CIVAppAffinity
{
    Param
    (
        # Parameter for the vAPP
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,
                   ValueFromPipelineByPropertyName=$true,
                   Position=0)]
        $CIVApp,

        # If the rule should apply on a different cluster
        $Cluster = "vCD-Cluster"
    )

	$pod = Get-CIVapp $CIVApp
	if ($pod){
		$PodVMs = Get-CIVM -VApp $pod
		$VMs = @()
		$Cluster = Get-Cluster $Cluster
		Foreach ($PodVM in $PodVMs) { 
			$VMname = $PodVM.Name + "*"
			$VM =  Get-VM $VMname | where {$_.ExtensionData.MoRef.Value -eq $PodVM.ExtensionData.VCloudExtension[0].Any[0].VmVimObjectRef.MoRef}
			$VMs +=$VM
		}

		if (!(Get-DrsRule -Cluster $Cluster -Name $pod.Name -ErrorAction SilentlyContinue)){ 
			New-DrsRule -Name $pod.Name -Cluster $Cluster -KeepTogether $true -VM $VMs
		}else{
			Remove-DrsRule -Rule (Get-DrsRule -Cluster $Cluster -Name $pod.Name) -Confirm:$false
			New-DrsRule -Name $pod.Name -Cluster $Cluster -KeepTogether $true -VM $VMs
		}
	}
}

And when checking the cluster i can see that my DRS affinity rule has been created and the VMs have been migrated to the same host

It is not so extensive but it helps us with the case to create DRS affinity on the VMs in a particular vApp :-) , The Rule is deleted when the vApp is removed, I have an extra check in the script and remove it if it still exist of some reason.

 

A PowerCLI function to manage VMware vSphere Licenses

As always ( or at least in my world) you should do everything in powershell/powerCLI. Now the turn comes to handling licensing in VMware vSphere.

I searched the web and found some information from Luc Dekens post and from Joe Keegan post. I also used the Onyx VMware fling to get some more functionality.

I decided to do some powershell functions and came up with the following, I have created three functions that can do some magic with your licenses

  • Get-vLicense  – query the vCenter for licenses
  • Add-vLicense – add a license or assign an existing license to a host/vCenter
  • Remove-vLicense – remove a license that is not in use

Of course there might be other things regarding licensing i have forgot but see this as a version 0.1 and that you can give me input on what to add or change

Here you can see how the function get the information:

You have to bare with me and my paintbrush skills, but I cannot show my license keys on the Internet :-)

I can also use a switch to just show the ones that are not used with

Get-vLicense -showUnused

I would like to move my hosts to the new license that i have that has unlimited cores

I can also in the Add function just add without assigning the license right now just use the -AddKey switch

And if I want to remove the unused license I  use the following function, It can utilize a pipeline parameter as you see

 

And here is the whole code for the functions:

function Get-vLicense{
<#
.SYNOPSIS
Function to show all licenses  in vCenter
 
.DESCRIPTION
Use this function to get all licenses in vcenter
 
.PARAMETER  xyz 
 
.NOTES
Author: Niklas Akerlund / RTS
Date: 2012-03-28
#>
	param (
		[Parameter(ValueFromPipeline=$True, HelpMessage="Enter the license key or object")]$LicenseKey = $null,
		[Switch]$showUnused,
		[Switch]$showEval
		)
	$servInst = Get-View ServiceInstance
	$licenceMgr = Get-View $servInst.Content.licenseManager
	if ($showUnused -and $showEval){
		$licenses = $licenceMgr.Licenses | where {$_.EditionKey -eq "eval" -or $_.Used -eq 0}
	}elseif($showUnused){
		$licenses = $licenceMgr.Licenses | where {$_.EditionKey -ne "eval" -and $_.Used -eq 0}
	}elseif($showEval){
		$licenses = $licenceMgr.Licenses | where {$_.EditionKey -eq "eval"}
	}elseif ($LicenseKey -ne $null) {
		if (($LicenseKey.GetType()).Name -eq "String"){
			$licenses = $licenceMgr.Licenses | where {$_.LicenseKey -eq $LicenseKey}
		}else {
			$licenses = $licenceMgr.Licenses | where {$_.LicenseKey -eq $LicenseKey.LicenseKey}
		}
	}
	else {
		$licenses = $licenceMgr.Licenses | where {$_.EditionKey -ne "eval"}
	}
	
	$licenses
}

function Add-vLicense{
<#
.SYNOPSIS
Add New Licenses to the vCenter license manager
 
.DESCRIPTION
Use this function to add licenses  and assing to either the vcenter or the hosts
 
.PARAMETER  xyz 
 	
.NOTES
Author: Niklas Akerlund / RTS
Date: 2012-03-28
#>
param (
	$VMHost ,
	[Parameter(ValueFromPipeline=$True)]$License = $null,
	[string]$LicenseKey = "XXXXX-XXXXX-XXXXX-XXXXX-XXXXX",
	[switch]$AddKey
    )
	$LicenseMgr = Get-View -Id 'LicenseManager-LicenseManager'
	$LicenseAssignMgr = Get-View -Id 'LicenseAssignmentManager-LicenseAssignmentManager'
	if($License){
		$LicenseKey = $License.LicenseKey
		$LicenseType = $LicenseMgr.DecodeLicense($LicenseKey)
	}else{
		$LicenseType = $LicenseMgr.DecodeLicense($LicenseKey)
	}
	
	if ($LicenseType) {
		if ($AddKey){
			$LicenseMgr.AddLicense($LicenseKey, $null)
		}else{
			if ($LicenseType.EditionKey -eq "vc"){
				#$servInst = Get-View ServiceInstance
				$Uuid = (Get-View ServiceInstance).Content.About.InstanceUuid
				$licenseAssignMgr.UpdateAssignedLicense($Uuid, $LicenseKey,$null)
			} else {
				$key = Get-vLicense -LicenseKey $LicenseKey
				if($key  -and ($key.Total-$key.Used) -lt (get-vmhost $VMHost | get-view).Hardware.CpuInfo.NumCpuPackages){
					Write-Host "Not Enough licenses left"
				} else{
					$Uuid = (Get-VMhost $VMHost | Get-View).MoRef.Value
					$licenseAssignMgr.UpdateAssignedLicense($Uuid, $LicenseKey,$null)
				}
			}	
		}
	}	
}


function Remove-vLicense{
<#
.SYNOPSIS
Function to remove a licenses that is not in use in vCenter
 
.DESCRIPTION
Use this function to remove a license
 
.PARAMETER  xyz 
 
.NOTES
Author: Niklas Akerlund / RTS
Date: 2012-03-28
#>
param (
	[Parameter(Position=0, Mandatory=$true, ValueFromPipeline=$True, HelpMessage="Enter the key or keyobject to remove")]$License
	)
	$LicObj = Get-vLicense $License 
	if($LicObj.Used -eq 0){
		$LicenseMgr = Get-View -Id 'LicenseManager-LicenseManager'
		$LicenseMgr.RemoveLicense($LicObj.LicenseKey)
	}else{
		Write-Host " The license is assigned and cannot be removed"
	}
}